Wednesday, 30 April 2014

Importance of Arts And Crafts to Children.

Children Develop Life Skills through Art Activities

Art may seem like fun and games but you may not realize that your child is actually learning a lot through exploring the arts and doing art activities. Your children will gain useful life skills through art, so encourage them to get creative, and you will quickly see that your children are picking up these skills:


Communication Skills

When a child draws a picture, paints a portrait, or hangs buttons from a wobbly mobile, that child is beginning to communicate visually. A child may draw to document an actual experience like playing in the park, release feelings of joy by painting swirling colors, or share an emotionally charged experience like the passing of a loved one through art. Art goes beyond verbal language to communicate feelings that might not otherwise be expressed.


Problem-Solving Skills

When children explore art ideas, they are testing possibilities and working through challenges, much like a scientist who experiments and finds solutions. Should I use a shorter piece of yarn to balance my mobile? This tape isn't holding -- what should I try instead? How did I make brown -- I thought I made orange? Art allows children to make their own assessments, while also teaching them that a problem may have more than one answer. Instead of following specific rules or directions, the child's brain becomes engaged in the discovery of "how" and "why." Even when experimenting or learning how to handle art materials effectively, children are solving challenges and coming up with new ways to handle unexpected outcomes.


Social & Emotional Skills

Art helps children come to terms with themselves and the control they have over their efforts. Through art, they also practice sharing and taking turns, as well as appreciating one another's efforts. Art fosters positive mental health by allowing a child to show individual uniqueness as well as success and accomplishment, all part of a positive self-concept.


Fine Motor Skills

Fine motor skills enable a child do things like delicately turn the page of a book or fill in a sheet of paper with written words. Holding a paintbrush so that it will make the desired marks, snipping paper with scissors into definite shapes, drawing with a crayon, or squeezing glue from a bottle in a controlled manner all help develop a child's fine motor skills and control of materials.


Self-Expression and Creativity

Children express themselves through art on a fundamental level. Sometimes their artwork is the manifestation of that expression, but more often, the physical process of creating is the expression. Picture the toddler who has a new baby sister busily pummeling his fists into Play-Doh; a six-year-old joyfully painting flowers with huge arm movements blending, reds and yellows; a ten year-old drawing a portrait of her grandmother who recently passed away. Creating art allows children to work through feelings and emotions, and referring to a finished piece of artwork helps a child talk about feelings in a new and meaningful way. Art also develops a child's creativity. Rather than being told what to do, answers and directions come from the child. Art is an experience that requires freethinking, experimentation, and analysis -- all part of creativity.

It is important, however, to separate the notion of "talent" from "creativity" -- a child does not have to create a masterpiece to have a meaningful artistic experience. Art is a process, not a product. It's tempting to want our children's art to turn out "cookie-cutter perfect" to prove that they are successful and on track. It's reassuring to know that we can relax! Where art is concerned, it is the process of creating -- exploring, discovering, and experimenting -- that has the greatest value. Through self-expression and creativity, children's skills will develop naturally, and their ability to create will soar.





According to W.Lambert Brittain, author of Creativity, Art, and the Young Child, "The child's personality often shines through loud and clear when he or she draws or paints, for example, the little red-headed boy who drew red-haired boys in stripped T-shirts. No one doubted whom the drawings represented. Drawings by young children are typically egocentric." Brittain says that "Art activities not only reflect a child's inner self: they help form it."
The final form, the finished picture, the beautiful painting is not the goal of art for young children (Schwartz and Douglas, 1967). The goals of art for preschoolers is to:
1.       Express their thinking, knowledge and ideas;
2.       Explore, try out, and create with new and different kinds of media;
3.       Experiment with colors, lines, forms, shapes, textures, and designs;
4.       Express feelings and emotions;
5.       Be creative.

Parents and teachers have many opportunities to help children develop mentally, socially and emotionally. Art promotes creativity, builds self-confidence, teaches task analysis and participate in group work as well as individuals.

Art Promotes Creativity
One of the goals for art education, whether in the home or school, is to make children more creative regardless of where their creativity will be used. Parents know that even siblings are highly individual. No two youngsters express themselves the same way. Creativity brings out the child's personality. Viktor Lowenfeld, in Creative and Mental Growth, says, "To suppress these individual differences, to emphasize the final product, to reward one youngster over another, goes against the basic premises of creative expression."
When parents view their child's artwork, they realize the creative process involved is of great value to the developing child. In other words, the process is more important than the product.

Parents may encourage their children to experiment with art products in the following ways:
·         Avoid coloring-book-type line drawings or workbooks.
·         Have faith in your child's art work and tell them so.
·         Refrain from doing the work yourself, or offering too much help.
·         Accept a child's creative products without placing a value judgment on the item.
·         Make positive comments as to how the child solves a problem in relating to his work.
·         State the confidence you have in the child to make the product unique.

Art Builds Self-Confidence

Parents who encourage the creative skills of pretending, imaginative thinking, fantasizing and inventiveness help their child deal with the world in which they live. And these skills will help in problem solving, getting along with others and understanding their world. When used in art and other areas, these skills build self-confidence--essential for now and for the future.

Early Movements and Preschoolers Creative Play

Early Movement Play

Intuitively parents and other adoring adults play movements games with infants and toddlers that involves body touch and tactile modeling. We touch noses and toes, tickle tummies and help hands claps together as we rhythmically chant the melodies. We gleefully bounce toddlers on our knee as we chant a nonsense verse. Music and movements are an instinctive, integral part of an adult- child interaction.

Body touch and bouncing Games

The following examples describe how infants respond to music with body touch and bouncing games.
  • The father sings and rocks while gently tapping the baby’s bottom or gently touching her eyes or ears.
  • The grandpa crosses his leg and gives Jenny a ride on his foot while chanting.

Imitative Play

Young children learn through imitative play. They watch, copy what they see and practice until the ideas become their own. We model many ideas for moving in space both tactilely (touching) and visually (seeing). Tactile Modeling is an important technique for introducing to how a movement feels. Later, they become more able to imitate ideas that are only visually expressed.

Tactile Modeling

  • The adult claps the infants  hand together and directs other gestures to accompany the chant
  • The adult extends her index fingers for the toddlers to grip. And together they sway from side to side or make a falling down motion as the adult sings or chants these familiar nursery rhymes. The child is in control and can release her grip to move independently at any time.

Visual Modeling

Two and three years olds at first tends to be merely watchful during guided movement play but after much repetition of the play, they become excited, anticipating the predictable actions. The adults presents the story or music and guides the play. Children imitate what they see.

Creative movement

Children should have many opportunities to freely make up dances to music. These children will make jabbing, jerking and bobbing motions, with feet rarely leaving the security of the floor. Their arms are used more for balanced and gesturing. They swish a scarf about, but they would rather wrap themselves in it than use it for dancing prop. Freely moving to music is still wondrous play for these children, especially if a partner or other loved one is also participating in the play.

Why creative play is important for preschoolers

The preschool years can be one of the most creative times in a child’s life. While your child’s imagination is still developing, drama, music, dance and visual art:
  • foster creativity
  • help your child express her feelings
  • help develop her motor skills
  • give her a chance to try out her problem-solving and thinking skills
  • shed new light on existing situations, and help her find new ways of looking at things

Drama

Preschoolers use songs, dress-ups, art materials, language and movement to express feelings, experiences and ideas. Sometimes your child might prefer to tell stories alone – at other times, he might enjoy it more if you join in.
Your preschooler will often use new songs and stories as the basis for her play. This might involve quickly switching roles – one moment she’s a queen eating bread and honey, and the next you've got a little cow jumping over the moon!
Preschoolers often get completely involved in stories. For example, when you read your preschooler a story, you might notice him moving his arms, legs or face, mimicking what’s happening in the story.

Visual art

Preschoolers love to express themselves and their ideas using crayons, paints, play-dough, clay, scissors, glue and paper.
Your child will begin making basic shapes, and might enjoy experimenting with texture, space and colors in pieces of art. For example, preschoolers will often draw houses with shining suns above them – this is because this picture is made up of very basic shapes, including a square house, triangular roof and round sun.
As children develop, their artworks contain more and more detail. Drawings of people are usually basic figures to begin with. Realistic shape, scale and other characteristics come a little later.

Music

As with art materials, preschoolers use musical instruments (including their own voices) to express feelings and ideas.
Your child will enjoy singing just for the sake of singing. She’ll love songs with repetition and simple melodies. She can make up her own words to familiar songs, and words often come from the events and people around her.

Your preschooler will usually be able to recognize and name favorite songs, and sing parts of them fairly accurately. You’ll quickly come to learn his favorite nursery rhymes off by heart! Singing along also helps children understand the differences between fast and slow, long and short, and loud and soft.
Preschoolers might also enjoy group singing games and finger plays – for example, ‘Open Shut Them’ or ‘Where is Thumb kin?’

Types of Plays and Musical

Long Monologues
  • These are solo pieces about ten minutes long. They are suitable for use in forensics (speech and debate) competitions, as part of an evening of shorts, or simply as a way to showcase a young actor's talent.

Ten-Minute Plays
  • These short plays are suitable for use in forensics (speech and debate) duo competitions, as part of an evening of shorts, or as classroom acting exercises

One-Act Plays
  • For many drama programs, a one-act play is the perfect length to challenge young performers without overburdening them in their crowded schedules. One-acts are also perfect as competition plays. These short plays (ranging from about 35 minutes to just under an hour) have delighted audiences around the world.

Full-Length Plays and Musicals
  • Looking for something bigger? These full-length plays and musicals are ideal for the "big" production in your season. While they lend themselves to fun, elaborate sets and lighting that will challenge your tech crew, they can also be performed very simply.


Dance

Your preschooler will show that she’s developing control of her body by moving spontaneously to music.
Your child might also express feelings of sadness, happiness, joy or excitement through movement – not to mention a temper tantrum now and then!
You might find your child flying like a butterfly, creeping like a caterpillar, hopping like a frog, or tiptoeing so as not to wake the baby. These play movements are helping him understand more about the world. Encourage this activity by giving him props – for example, your child could wave around a scarf to represent flight.







Importance of Arts and Craft to Children


Children Develop Life Skills through Art Activities

Art may seem like fun and games but you may not realize that your child is actually learning a lot through exploring the arts and doing art activities. Your children will gain useful life skills through art, so encourage them to get creative, and you will quickly see that your children are picking up these skills:

Communication Skills
When a child draws a picture, paints a portrait, or hangs buttons from a wobbly mobile, that child is beginning to communicate visually. A child may draw to document an actual experience like playing in the park, release feelings of joy by painting swirling colors, or share an emotionally charged experience like the passing of a loved one through art. Art goes beyond verbal language to communicate feelings that might not otherwise be expressed.

Problem-Solving Skills
When children explore art ideas, they are testing possibilities and working through challenges, much like a scientist who experiments and finds solutions. Should I use a shorter piece of yarn to balance my mobile? This tape isn't holding -- what should I try instead? How did I make brown -- I thought I made orange? Art allows children to make their own assessments, while also teaching them that a problem may have more than one answer. Instead of following specific rules or directions, the child's brain becomes engaged in the discovery of "how" and "why." Even when experimenting or learning how to handle art materials effectively, children are solving challenges and coming up with new ways to handle unexpected outcomes.

Social & Emotional Skills
Art helps children come to terms with themselves and the control they have over their efforts. Through art, they also practice sharing and taking turns, as well as appreciating one another's efforts. Art fosters positive mental health by allowing a child to show individual uniqueness as well as success and accomplishment, all part of a positive self-concept.

Fine Motor Skills
Fine motor skills enable a child do things like delicately turn the page of a book or fill in a sheet of paper with written words. Holding a paintbrush so that it will make the desired marks, snipping paper with scissors into definite shapes, drawing with a crayon, or squeezing glue from a bottle in a controlled manner all help develop a child's fine motor skills and control of materials.

Self-Expression and Creativity
Children express themselves through art on a fundamental level. Sometimes their artwork is the manifestation of that expression, but more often, the physical process of creating is the expression. Picture the toddler who has a new baby sister busily pummeling his fists into Play-Doh; a six-year-old joyfully painting flowers with huge arm movements blending, reds and yellows; a ten year-old drawing a portrait of her grandmother who recently passed away. Creating art allows children to work through feelings and emotions, and referring to a finished piece of artwork helps a child talk about feelings in a new and meaningful way. Art also develops a child's creativity. Rather than being told what to do, answers and directions come from the child. Art is an experience that requires freethinking, experimentation, and analysis -- all part of creativity.

It is important, however, to separate the notion of "talent" from "creativity" -- a child does not have to create a masterpiece to have a meaningful artistic experience. Art is a process, not a product. It's tempting to want our children's art to turn out "cookie-cutter perfect" to prove that they are successful and on track. It's reassuring to know that we can relax! Where art is concerned, it is the process of creating -- exploring, discovering, and experimenting -- that has the greatest value. Through self-expression and creativity, children's skills will develop naturally, and their ability to create will soar.

According to W.Lambert Brittain, author of Creativity, Art, and the Young Child, "The child's personality often shines through loud and clear when he or she draws or paints, for example, the little red-headed boy who drew red-haired boys in stripped T-shirts. No one doubted whom the drawings represented. Drawings by young children are typically egocentric." Brittain says that "Art activities not only reflect a child's inner self: they help form it."

The final form, the finished picture, the beautiful painting is not the goal of art for young children (Schwartz and Douglas, 1967). The goals of art for preschoolers is to:
1.       Express their thinking, knowledge and ideas;
2.       Explore, try out, and create with new and different kinds of media;
3.       Experiment with colors, lines, forms, shapes, textures, and designs;
4.       Express feelings and emotions;
5.       Be creative.

Parents and teachers have many opportunities to help children develop mentally, socially and emotionally. Art promotes creativity, builds self-confidence, teaches task analysis and participate in group work as well as individuals.

Art Promotes Creativity
One of the goals for art education, whether in the home or school, is to make children more creative regardless of where their creativity will be used. Parents know that even siblings are highly individual. No two youngsters express themselves the same way. Creativity brings out the child's personality. Viktor Lowenfeld, in Creative and Mental Growth, says, "To suppress these individual differences, to emphasize the final product, to reward one youngster over another, goes against the basic premises of creative expression."
When parents view their child's artwork, they realize the creative process involved is of great value to the developing child. In other words, the process is more important than the product.
Parents may encourage their children to experiment with art products in the following ways:
·         Avoid coloring-book-type line drawings or workbooks.
·         Have faith in your child's art work and tell them so.
·         Refrain from doing the work yourself, or offering too much help.
·         Accept a child's creative products without placing a value judgment on the item.
·         Make positive comments as to how the child solves a problem in relating to his work.
·         State the confidence you have in the child to make the product unique.

Art Builds Self-Confidence

Parents who encourage the creative skills of pretending, imaginative thinking, fantasizing and inventiveness help their child deal with the world in which they live. And these skills will help in problem solving, getting along with others and understanding their world. When used in art and other areas, these skills build self-confidence--essential for now and for the future.

Toddler Playtime Activities


Playing is important to children. It is the way they practice growing up. Toys are the tools children use in play. Toys can be purchased, or they may be as simple as kitchen pan lids or paper sack puppets. Anything children can play with safely can be a toy. In fact, you may have watched infants open presents and noticed that they spent more time playing with the ribbon and wrapping than with the toy inside.

Try to remember two or three of your favorite toys. Were they ones you created yourself or ones someone made for you?

Toys can be divided into several groups, depending on the part of the child it helps to develop.

  • Toys for physical or muscle development such as wagons, bikes, boxes, puzzles, blocks, brooms, and shovels.
  • Toys for sensory (touch, sight, sound, taste, smell) development such as water toys, musical instruments, bubbles, play dough, and sand toys.
  • Toys for make-believe and social development such as dolls, dress-up clothes, cars, trucks, games, and books.
  • Toys for creative and intellectual development such as clay, crayons, paints, books, paper, and scissors.

Looking for some easy imagination playtime activities for your busybody toddler your cabinets, toy box, or  recycling bin for some new "toys" and supplies for playtime. All of these activities use basic household items to stimulate and entertain your tot for hours!


Pretend Grocery Store

You don't need to buy a bunch of plastic play food to enjoy a game of "pretend grocery store ‘ with your preschooler. Just stock your imaginary store with recycled mini cereal boxes and other empty food containers , and give your child a paper shopping bag or a basket with handles to go about her shopping.


Dress-Up Relay

 Have some old clothes lying around? Play this dress-up game! All you need are two suitcases or bags filled with dress-up clothes. Teams or even just a parent and a preschooler can face off, racing each other to try on the funniest outfit, including one of each item of clothing (don't forget a silly hat!).



Balloon Magic


If you have even more leftover party balloons sitting around, check out these quick games and activities. In Balloon Magic, children get a sense of gravity and static electricity by playing with balloons. In Flashlight Fun, children can explore shining colorful spots of light on the ceiling and mixing different colored spots to make new colors.

Infants And Educational Toys

Infants need bright-colored toys of many textures. They should be washable, non-breakable, and have no sharp edges that might cut or scratch. Toys should be large enough so they cannot be swallowed and they should have no small attached pieces (like eyes on a stuffed animal or bells on a shaker) that could be pulled off and swallowed. At this age, babies put everything into their mouths as part of exploring their worlds. Any toy they are given must be safe when used in this way.

Infants are interested in looking at toys, touching them with their hands and mouth, fitting pieces of things together and making sense of their worlds. Choose toys for them to look at, feel, chew on, hold, and drop. As infants begin to walk or crawl, they also will be interested in push-pull toys and balls. Appropriate infants toys include: rattles, squeak toys, blocks, crib mobiles, stacking toys and rings, push-pull toys, stuffed animals or dolls, nested boxes or cups, books with rhymes, simple picture books, noise making toys, small soft toys for throwing, strings of beads (large, plastic), and music-making toys.

How you can help

1. Be understanding when you play with infants. Play with them for short periods of time so they will not get overly excited. Babies do not understand or enjoy teasing. For example, when they reach for a toy, let them get it instead of dangling it then snatching it away. Teasing frustrates babies and may make them cry.

2. Play "pat-a-cake, peek-a-boo" and simple games with infants.

3. Let babies play with your fingers and hair.

TODDLERS  pretend play creative educational toys play house play tent tunnel child puppet theaters day care center AND EDUCATIONAL TOYS

Toddlers are active and enjoy climbing, running, and jumping. They need toys to meet these needs. They also are interested in doing things with their hands as the small muscles in their fingers become more developed. However, toys for this age group should be simple and require little coordination. During this period, toddlers become interested in playing with others and in imitating grown-up activities. Toys like dress-up clothes are great for this!

As a caregiver, be careful about imposing sex stereotypes on toddlers' toy choices. Boys will sometimes show interest in dolls or want to be "the mommy." Girls may want trucks or to be "Superman." That is okay. This exploration is normal and necessary for them to learn about the world.

Toddlers also are interested in sensory materials such as paint, play dough, crayons, and chalk. They usually are not interested in drawing or painting a specific object. They like to scribble and mix colors. When talking to young children about their creations, it is better to say "Tell me about your picture," rather than "What is it?"

Toddler's still put toys in their mouths, so you will need to watch for objects with small parts. Also, watch out for items, such as paint and chalk, as toddlers think it is great fun to eat these! Toys should be sturdy and should not have sharp edges or points. Toddlers enjoy balloons, but caregivers should be careful to keep uninflated or broken balloons out of reach. A child could suffocate if these are swallowed.

Appropriate Toddler Toys

  • push-pull toys
  • pedal toys
  • truck/cars big enough to ride
  • wagons
  • balls and bean bags
  • balloons (with close supervision) swings
  • climbing structures
  • books with simple stories
  • blocks
  • peg boards
  • puzzles
  • creative materials (crayons, playdough, paint)
  • water play toys
  • simple dress-up clothes
  • dolls and stuffed animals
  • boxes












How you can help

1. Play pretend games with children. For example, create a traffic jam with the toy cars they use. Make believe you are animals like kittens, dogs, or horses.

2. Play tag, bounce, or catch with balls or bean bags.

3. Play follow-the-leader or design a toddler-size obstacle course.

4. Let children imitate your activities such as sweeping the floor.

Cognitive Development in Babies and Children

Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of brain development and cognitive psychology compared to an adult's point of view.

In other words, cognitive development is the emergence of the ability to think and understand. A large portion of research has gone into understanding how a child imagines the world. Jean Piaget was a major force in the establishment of this field, forming his "theory of cognitive development".

      Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational period.Many of his theoretical claims have since fallen out of favor. However, his description of the more prominent changes in cognition with age (e.g., that it moves from being dependent on actions and perception in infancy to an understanding of the more observable aspects of reality in childhood to capturing the underlying abstract rules and principles in adolescence) is generally still accepted today.

Perhaps equally importantly, Piaget identified and described many cognitive changes that must be explained, such as object permanence in infancy and the understanding of logical relations and cause-effect reasoning in school age children.

A major controversy in cognitive development has been "nature and nurture", that is, the question if cognitive development is mainly determined by an individual's innate qualities ("nature"), or by their personal experiences ("nurture"). However, it is now recognized by most experts that this is a false dichotomy: there is overwhelming evidence from biological and behavioral sciences that from the earliest points in development, gene activity interacts with events and experiences in the environment.

Children change more quickly than we’d like. It seems you can blink and your child has grown, evolved, developed or reached a key milestone. One minute they are throwing board books in the toy box, the next they are flipping through the pages of story books and as they grow older, they start reading and enjoying books they choose themselves.

Some of the changes in our kids are not so easy to spot, particularly cognitive changes. Children’s brains develop as they have new experiences. You cannot see the brain developing, but you can see what new things the child can do.

Stages of cognitive development
Piaget was a major theorist and psychologist who developed stages to understand cognitive development. There are four major periods of cognitive development in children:

First cognitive development stage: Sensory motor period (0 - 24 months)

  • The following points outline the progressive nature of cognitive development and how physical actions aid the brain’s development as babies grow. 
  • Reflexive Stage (up to two months): Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking. 
  • Primary Circular Reactions (two to four months) 
  • Reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively. 
  • Secondary Circular Reactions (four to eight months) 
  • Repetition of actions to reproduce interesting consequences such as kicking feet to move a mobile.
  • Coordination of Secondary Reactions (eight to12 months) Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences.
  • Actions take on an "intentional" character such as baby reaches behind a box to grab a favourite toy. 
  • Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) Discovery of new ways to produce the same goal, such as toddlers pulling a ball toward him so he can roll it. Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination (18-24 months) Evidence the toddler can problem-solve a sequence of events before actually responding. For example, can take the ball out of a cupboard if it’s not in sight and play with it.


Second cognitive development stage: The preoperational period (two to seven years)
·         

      Preoperational Phase (two to four years)

  • Increased use of verbal representation, but speech is egocentric. The beginnings of symbolic rather than simple motor play. Transductive reasoning. Can think about something without the object being in front of them by using language to describe it.


·         Intuitive Phase (four to seven years)

  • Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The child has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts but these are crude and irreversible. At this stage, kids believe in magical increases and decreases – their sense of reality is not firm and it is their perceptions of the world that dominate their judgments. In moral-ethical realm, the child is not able to show principles underlying best behaviour. For example, they can’t understand the reasoning behind the rules of a game, but can understand simple do's and don'ts imposed by authority.


·         Third cognitive development stage: Concrete operations (seven to 12 years)

  • There is now evidence for organised, logical thought. There is the ability to classify many tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of conservation. Thinking becomes less egocentric. The child is capable of concrete problem-solving.


·         Fourth cognitive development stage: Formal operations (12 years+)

  • Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic. The ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes is evident. Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality.


·         The benefits of understanding cognitive development

  • Whether you believe or agree with Piaget’s complex theories of cognitive development, they at least allow parents to understand what is normal and appropriate for general age groups.


Speculated core systems of cognition

·         Number
    
  •     If Infants appear to have two systems for dealing with numbers. One deals with small numbers, often called subitizing. Another deals with larger numbers in an approximate fashion.

·       
        Space

  • Very young children appear to have some skill in navigation. This basic ability to infer the direction and distance of unseen locations develops in ways that are not entirely clear. However, there is some evidence that it involves the development of complex language skills between 3 and 5 years. Also, there is evidence that this skill depends importantly on visual experience, because congenitally blind individuals have been found to have impaired abilities to infer new paths between familiar locations.


·         Visual perception

  • One of the original nativist versus empiricist debates was over depth perception. There is some evidence that children less than 72 hours old can perceive such complex things as biological motion. However, it is unclear how visual experience in the first few days contributes to this perception. There are far more elaborate aspects of visual perception that develop during infancy and beyond.


·         Essentialism

  • Young children seem to be predisposed to think of biological entities (e.g., animals and plants) in an essentialist  way. This means that they expect such entities (as opposed to, e.g., artifacts) to have many traits such as internal properties that are caused by some "essence" (such as, in our modern Western conceptual framework, the genome)


·         Language acquisition

  • A major, well-studied process and consequence of cognitive development is language acquisition. The traditional view was that this is the result of deterministic, human-specific genetic structures and processes. Other traditions, however, have emphasized the role of social experience in language learning. However, the relation of gene activity, experience, and language development is now recognized as incredibly complex and difficult to specify. Language development is sometimes separated into learning of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and discourse or pragmatics. However, all of these aspects of language knowledge—which were originally posited by the linguist Noam Chomsky to be autonomous or separate—are now recognized to interact in complex ways.

Toys , games, and activities are easier to choose if you understand the stages of a child’s cognitive development. If you know that most children do some things at a certain age, you will know that you don’t need to change that behavior. You will understand that it is not your fault your child is doing something annoying.

By understanding normal development, you can tell when a child’s development may be lagging behind their peers. In most cases, it’s fine, but there are some red flags in children’s development that may be worth raising with a doctor or specialist.

How to aid their cognitive development

Use unplanned events to help children learn
Children may blow bubbles in their drink. You can ask them why they think milk bubbles last so long but water bubbles do not. You can compare them to water bubbles that disappear almost immediately. You can talk with your kids about what happens when they put different foods or objects in milk.

Encourage children’s thinking – even if it’s annoying!
Plenty of mothers worry about the mess their toddlers and small children make while eating. But sometimes this mess is the key to unlocking the next stage of your child’s cognitive development. For example, a toddler starts dropping peas on the floor—one by one—at dinner time. Wow, that’s quite a cognitive skill he’s developing there: picking up small objects one by one, understanding the power of gravity and seeing the results of his hard work.

Children use hands-on experience to learn
Children use concrete, hands-on experiences to help them understand the world around them. That toddler dropping peas on the floor may be trying to understand, “If I drop this, what happens next?” Be happy to know your child is learning, even if you will need to pick up the peas!.