Sunday, 25 May 2014

When Parents Need to Introduce solid food for babies.

6 months baby, 

At this stage many parents introduce solid food for the first time. Solid food is actually assortment.s of purees. We have some tips to get you started below. Baby will also be continuing to absorb language and it is never too early to start reading and singing songs to your baby who just loves the sound of your voice!

How baby learns to talk
Simple - he learns from you. As you go about your daily routine with baby in tow he is soaking up everything around him, from the way you talk on your mobile phone or answer the door, to the sounds on the television. His brain is taking in everything that he hears.

You can add to these experiences by talking to him as you go about the day, singing him little songs when you change his nappy or bath him, playing games such as 'Old McDonald had a Farm', 'Incy Wincy Spider' or 'Round and Round the Garden', and reading out loud from his own books as well as your magazines and books - even the shopping catalogues.

Researchers have watched as mothers look after their babies and found that they talk to their babies in a certain way and that they pitch their voices differently than when they are talking to adults or the dog, or anyone else. This talk is called 'parentese' but it is just another instinctive thing that parents do when they are caring for their baby.


Daytime naps
At six months the average number of hours a baby will sleep during the day is four and the average number of hours at night is ten. This is an average, some will need more, some less - but it shows that most babies still need to get an important part of their sleep quota during the day.

Babies of this age sleep because they are tired and if baby is not tired then you will have virtually no chance of convincing her otherwise. Alternately, if she is tired but you would rather she slept later, you will have great difficulty keeping your grizzly baby awake. Some babies are happy to play in their cots, but babies who have been left to cry for any length of time are not generally in this group - they associate the cot with being abandoned.

It is important that baby has a routine, but it should not rule your life. If you are out and it is baby's normal nap time, then do as much of his normal routine as you can - change, feed, rock - whatever your routine is. There is no reason why he can't sleep in your arms or over your shoulder at times like this.


First foods
There comes a time when baby will need more food than breast milk or formula, but it is important to know that there is no magic date. Baby will not suffer if she does not have her first rice cereal before she reaches the seven month mark, nor if she is interested in that first spoonful at five months. We do know that it is important not to offer foods other than milk any earlier or much later than that time. Earlier and her digestive system is simply not able to cope efficiently; she will still have the tongue reflex that makes the food come right back out and she is unlikely to be able to sit without one or two props. Later than seven months and she will not be getting the iron and other nutrients she needs to grow.

Baby's first food has to be a puree - even if she has a tooth or two she can't chew yet and she is likely to choke on anything else. Rice cereal (sold as baby rice cereal) mixed with breast milk or formula, is the usual first food because it is bland and easily digested, easy to mix up, its consistency can be altered and it is readily available.

Baby can have her first meal at any time that suits you - when you are not in a rush or stressed. Give baby her usual milk feed (breast or bottle) first and than offer one teaspoon of rice cereal  (mixed according to the directions on the packet) from a spoon and bowl that have been thoroughly washed in hot water and dried on a clean tea towel.

Have a cloth nappy on your lap, sit baby on top and be prepared for a mess.
Offer her a small amount on the spoon and if she doesn't like it, don't persist. Throw the cereal away and try again later that day, or early the next.

If baby likes it you can introduce another new food after three or four days. Most parents chose a fruit such as apple or pear to puree first.

These are so easy to make yourself. All you need is an apple, a saucepan, two tablespoons of water and a stove. Peel, core and slice the apple or pear put it into the saucepan with the water and simmer until soft. Puree it with a tablespoon or two of boiled water and you have it! This will make about a cup and you can use this method to make different fruit purees.


Babies don't need any added salt or sugar added to their food, their taste buds are much sharper than yours.

Experimenting Babies Early Stages

From helpless newborn to active toddler: It takes just 12 short months for your baby to undergo this incredible transformation. Babies grow and change at an astounding pace, and every month brings new and exciting developments.

New moms and dads often wonder what to expect next and how to know if their baby’s development is on target. Instead of focusing too much on developmental milestones, however, it’s important to remember that babies all develop at their own pace. There’s a fairly wide “window” for when it is normal for a baby to reach a particular developmental stage.

“If your baby reaches one milestone sooner, she may reach another one later, because she’s so busy perfecting the other skill,” says Jennifer Shu, MD, pediatrician and co-author of Heading Home with Your Newborn.

Some babies may say their first word at eight months, while others don’t talk until a little after the one-year mark. And walking may start anytime between nine and 18 months.

Keeping those kinds of variations in mind, here’s what your baby may be doing during each three-month stage of the first year.

Baby Development: One to Three Months

During this first development stage, babies’ bodies and brains are learning to live in the outside world. Between birth and three months, your baby may start to:

Smile. Early on, it will be just to herself. But within three months, she’ll be smiling in response to your smiles and trying to get you to smile back at her.
Raise her head and chest when on her tummy.
Track objects with her eyes and gradually decrease eye crossing.
Open and shut her hands and bring hands to her mouth.
Grip objects in her hands.
Take swipes at or reach for dangling objects, though she usually won’t be able to get them yet.
Baby Development: Four to Six Months

During these months, babies are really learning to reach out and manipulate the world around them. They’re mastering the use of those amazing tools, their hands. And they’re discovering their voices. From 4 to 6 months old, your baby will probably:

Roll over from front to back or back to front. Front-to-back usually comes first.
Babble, making sounds that can sound like real language.
Reach out for and grab objects (watch out for your hair), and manipulate toys and other objects with her hands.
Sit up with support and have great head control.

Baby Development: Seven to Nine Months

During the second half of this year, your little one becomes a baby on the go. After learning that he can get somewhere by rolling over, he’ll spend the next few months figuring out how to move forward or backward. If you haven’t baby-proofed yet, better get on it!

During this time period, your baby may:
Start to crawl. This can include scooting (propelling around on his bottom) or “army crawling” (dragging himself on his tummy by arms and legs), as well as standard crawling on hands and knees. Some babies never crawl, moving directly to from scooting to walking.

Sit without support.
Respond to familiar words like his name. He may also respond to “No” by briefly stopping and looking at you, and may start babbling "Mama" and "Dada."
Clap and play games such as patty-cake and peekaboo.
Learn to pull up to a standing position
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Your baby is born with some amazing abilities - he is not just a little sponge waiting to soak up experiences. From the moment he is born, his ability to snuggle into your neck, grip your finger tightly and look into your eyes will have you falling in love.


Your baby is born with some amazing abilities - he is not just a little sponge waiting to soak up experiences. From the moment he is born, his ability to snuggle into your neck, grip your finger tightly and look into your eyes will have you falling in love.

Healthy newborns are perfectly attuned to their own needs. Though their eyes are not yet able to focus on things that are far away, baby can focus perfectly well on your face when you hold him in your arms - the distance from your nipple to your eyes!

Your newborn can also hear. From around 28 weeks of your pregnancy your newborn has been able to listen, hearing both the sounds of his mother's body and noises from the outside world. Studies have found that newborns react more strongly to the higher pitch of a female voice, than to a deeper male voice. Newborn babies are soothed by the sound of their mother's voice chattering and cooing to them - and they can be upset when that voice becomes sad or angry. Interestingly, many dads find they raise the pitch of their voice when talking to their newborn.

Baby's nose is also a sensitive organ and a newborn can tell the difference between the smell of his own mother's breasts and that of another person. This is combined with a well developed sense of taste (babies have more taste buds than adults) which is finely tuned towards the sweet, milky taste of breast milk. Newborn babies are also born with a number of reflexes, some of which are vital for survival. These include the rooting reflex which enables baby to find his mother's nipple when his cheek is placed nearby; the sucking reflex; the swallowing reflex and the gagging reflex that prevents him from taking too much liquid. He is also able to cough up the mucus that has filled his lungs for the last nine months. When a baby is put down on his tummy he will automatically turn his head; he won't just lie with his head down. This is known as the labyrinthine reflex.


Eyes, noses and belly buttons
Snuffly noses, gummy eyes and that yucky cord stump are common worries for new parents. Newborn babies will make plenty of snotty sounds as they learn to cope with the mucus in their bodies and the milk going through their digestive system. A newborn baby's nose produces a good deal of mucus and it can make even more when milk goes down the wrong way - which it sometimes does. If your baby has a cold she is also likely to have a temperature and she may also cough a great deal. If you are in any doubt about your baby's health talk to your doctor.

Little eyes can also discharge mucus which gums the eyelids together. This is mostly caused by a blocked tear duct - your doctor or nurse will be able to show you how to clear it with a gentle massage.

Baby's umbilical cord stump is very tough and does not have any nerve fibres. It needs to be cleaned regularly. When you are in the hospital you may be advised to use methylated spirits because it reduces the chance that foreign germs will cause problems - at home you may find that warm water is enough. It is necessary to clean around the base of the cord stump until it drops off - which it will usually do sometime in the first week. If there is any redness or it gets smelly ask your nurse or doctor for advice.

What is posse-ting?
Bringing up milk in small quantities is the dictionary definition of those little 'sick-ups' called posseting in Australia and 'spitting up' in the USA. Many newborns decorate the shoulders of unsuspecting carers with little blobs of milk. You can tell the experienced parents because they have a nappy or small towel draped over the shoulder and may have taken added precautions by wearing light-coloured or patterned clothing! According to British child care author Dr Miriam Stoppard, babies posset because they have been overfed; according to American Dr William Sears, babies spit-up because 'they are babies'. Not very helpful, but he also attributes it to gulping milk and to the air which spurts up when the baby's stomach contracts. The important thing to know is that it is perfectly normal and that baby will have outgrown it by the second half of his first year. In the meantime, find yourself a few cloth nappies and don't jostle baby too much after a feed.


How newborns sleep
Whoever coined the phrase 'sleeping like a baby' did parents a big disservice. Newborn babies are not able to snuggle down for a peaceful night's sleep - this will not happen for some time.
A newborn's sleep is naturally more restless than an adults, she will make faces and move about.  In the early days she will sleep in the same position she was in when she was in the womb; over the following weeks she will gradually 'open out'. Also unlike adults, newborn babies are able, and generally prefer, to sleep in a noisy environment.
The best place for baby to sleep is somewhere safe that suits you both.

Sleep guide
- Newborn babies will sleep for between 14 and 20 hours in a 24 hour period.
- Sleep will usually be in short periods of between one and three hours.

- Newborn babies cannot tell the difference between night and day.

Thursday, 8 May 2014

How to teach Children to Sing.

 There are few suggestion on how you introduce songs to Children.

Introduce songs as background music first
When you hear a new song on the radio for the first time, you don't start singing along with it right away. You hear it a few times, and before you know, even if haven't been actively listening, soon you find yourself singing along. Nobody "teaches" you the song. Keep this in mind when introducing songs to young learners.
When learning a new song, kids need to learn the tune, the tempo, the rhythm and sometimes even gestures and dance. We can't just focus on the lyrics. Even if they know the lyrics, they can't really sing the song until they know the tune. Help students learn the tune by playing the song as background music as they enter the classroom or while they are doing a quiet activity. The kids will internalize the tune, and when you formally introduce the song in class, you will be able to focus more on the words.
For example, if you have plans to introduce a song in class, play the song on repeat in the background in an earlier lesson as the students are doing a sorting activity, making a craft, or coloring. Often, the children will start humming or singing the song on their own after hearing it once or twice, especially if the song is at their level.
The following lesson, have the song playing quietly (again on repeat) in the background as students enter the class and during the warm-up activities and greetings. By the time you "teach" the song, the students will already be familiar with it and probably even know some of the words (even if they don't yet know the meaning of the lyrics).

Input comes before output
Listening comes before speaking, or in this case, singing. Don't expect your students to sing the songs right away. The first time or two you play a new song, have the students listen and do the gestures to the song with you. As they watch you and follow the gestures, they'll be learning the song in the process. After one or two times, they'll likely be singing along.
If you like, introduce a song in phases. First, demonstrate the vocabulary and gestures without the music, then listen to the song and do the gestures; finally, listen, gesture and sing.

Some songs don't need much pre-teaching
When using active songs or songs with lots of repetition, there is no need to do much "pre-teaching."
For example, to introduce an action verb song like "Walking Walking," or "We All Fall Down," start by making a circle with the students. Then say, "Walk!" as you start walking around the circle. Encourage the students to walk with you as you say, "Walk" repeatedly. Then say, "Hop" and start hopping. Next do "Run," "Stop," "Tiptoe," "Skip," "Gallop," etc. Now put on the song and do the actions as you listen. Don't worry if the students don't know the words right away. They'll have fun doing the actions, and will learn the meaning by following you. The next week, use the song again. This time, encourage them to sing along. Now they know the words and actions!
Active songs like this can be used again and again. Each time you use the song, kids can learn a little more. You don't need flashcards because the students learn all of the language by doing the actions. It's great when students can learn by doing.

But some songs do
Some songs are active but include a lot of new language. In this case, you may want to "pre-teach" some of the vocabulary. For example, if you are going to sing "The Pinocchio," you can introduce the parts of the body before you sing the song. This is as simple as saying, "Everybody show me your right arm" and holding up your right arm as the students follow you. Have them say, "Right arm!" Next say, "Everybody show me your left arm!" Continue through all of the parts of the body in the song and then "quiz" the students. "Right arm!" (students hold up their right arms). "Right leg!" (Students hold up their right legs).
After reviewing the body parts, say, "Make a big circle!" Then play the music and do the gestures! It's easy to follow and there is a lot of repetition, so even if the students don't follow at first, they will definitely catch on by the end (and will be asking you to sing it again the next class!)
You can also use picture cards to introduce new vocabulary. We have free flashcards for almost every song on Super Simple Songs 1, 2 and 3 and our Themes Series has printable flashcards included with each CD. When using picture cards, try to teach a gesture along with each word.

Use visual aids
Some songs have more of a story to them and can be difficult to teach by gesture alone. For these, you can teach the song with visual aids. For example, classic rhymes/stories like "Five Little Monkeys," "Ten in the Bed," "The Wheels On The Bus," or "Old McDonald" all have many picture book versions available (you can search for them online at a place like Read the storybook first so that students understand what is happening when you sing the song. As you read the storybook, you can sing some of the words to introduce the melody of the song. After reading the book, try doing a simple craft or coloring page related to the book as you play the song in the background (see our Pinterest page for lots of craft ideas). Then sing the song and have the students follow along with the gestures.

Repetition is good
 Remember that with very young learners (4 years and younger), they enjoy the familiarity of hearing a song over and over. You can use their favorites almost every week. If you are using a song frequently, understand that there is no need for them to sing right away...let them become comfortable with it and sing when they are ready (they will!).
As the kids grow older, you don't want to repeat songs as much. Students will still have their favorites that they like to sing, but you won't be repeating songs every week like you do with the younger learners. In this case, you'll need to build more exposure to the song into one or two lessons, and then go back to it every once in a while for review. Here are more thoughts on teaching songs to elementary school students from Devon.

You may also refer to

Types of children songs
·         Caring Song
Description: Character Education song that teaches caring in the classroom and at school. It doesn’t matter what you look like, we are all unique and special. This is a song for learning how to care for others.
·         Courage Song
Description: Character Education song that teaches courage in the classroom and at school. This Courage Song will held kids stand up for what is right, never give up, and be happy with who you are. This is a song for learning courage and self-confidence.
·         Hey Bully Song
Description: Character Education song that teaches students how to respond to bullies. This Hey Bully Song is an anti-bullying song. Even though bullies do not respect us, we must still respect them. This is a song for learning how to deal with a bully.
·         Respect Song
Description: Character Education song that teaches respect in the classroom and at school. Respect Yourself, Respect Others, and Respect the School. This is a Respect Song for teaching and learning respect.
·         Noun Song
Description: Grammar song that teaches noun as a word that names a person, place or thing. This is a Noun Song for learning nouns.
·         Verb Rap Song
Description: Grammar song that teaches verb as one of the parts of speech. A verb is a word it’s an action word! Students will be dancing and moving around the classroom! This is a Verb Song for learning verbs.
·         Adjective Song
Description: Grammar song that teaches adjective. An adjective is used to give a noun more information. This is an Adjective Song for learning adjectives.
·         Simile Song
Description: Language Arts song that teaches simile. A simile compares two unlike things by connecting them with words such as ‘Like’ or ‘As’. This is a Simile Song for learning similes.
·         Volume Song
Description: Math song that teaches volume. This Volume Song will teach students how to find the volume 3D figures and solid shapes such as a cube and rectangular prism. This is a song for learning volume.
·         Good Morning Song
Description: Morning song that is geared towards Kindergarten and First Grade students telling them to have a great day! This is a Good Morning Song for learning how to have a good day and a good morning.
·         Days of the Week Song
Description: The Days of the Week Song is a song that teaches days of the week. This is a Days of the Week Song for learning the days of the week: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday.
·         Months of the Year Song
Description: This is a song that teaches the months of the year. This Months of the Year Song is a song for learning the months of the year: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.
·         Subject and Predicate Song
Description: Language Arts song that teaches subject and predicate as parts of a sentence. If you combine the subject and predicate, you will get a complete sentence! This is a Subject and Predicate Song for subject and predicate.
·         Author’s Purpose Song
Description: Reading song that teaches author’s purpose and author’s point of view. This is an Author’s Purpose Song for learning authors purpose and different points of view from an author.
·         Context Clues Song
Description: Reading song that teaches context clues. Context clues are pictures and words in a story that give us clues, which help us make predictions and understand more about the characters and plot. This is a Context Clues Song for learning context clues.
·         Reading Comprehension Song
Description: Reading song that teaches the 4-Step Method, which is a reading comprehension test-taking strategy. Students can follow these four easy steps to make sure they pass the reading part of the test. This is a Reading Comprehension Song for learning test taking strategies for reading comprehension tests.
 Story Elements Song
Description: Reading song that teaches story elements. In almost every story you will find a Character, Problem, and Resolution. This is a Story Elements for learning the elements of a story.
Expository Writing Song
Description: Writing song that teaches how to write an expository essay. This Expository Writing Song will explain the key elements in an expository writing sample. This is a song for learning how to write an expository paper.

Wednesday, 30 April 2014

Importance of Arts And Crafts to Children.

Children Develop Life Skills through Art Activities

Art may seem like fun and games but you may not realize that your child is actually learning a lot through exploring the arts and doing art activities. Your children will gain useful life skills through art, so encourage them to get creative, and you will quickly see that your children are picking up these skills:

Communication Skills

When a child draws a picture, paints a portrait, or hangs buttons from a wobbly mobile, that child is beginning to communicate visually. A child may draw to document an actual experience like playing in the park, release feelings of joy by painting swirling colors, or share an emotionally charged experience like the passing of a loved one through art. Art goes beyond verbal language to communicate feelings that might not otherwise be expressed.

Problem-Solving Skills

When children explore art ideas, they are testing possibilities and working through challenges, much like a scientist who experiments and finds solutions. Should I use a shorter piece of yarn to balance my mobile? This tape isn't holding -- what should I try instead? How did I make brown -- I thought I made orange? Art allows children to make their own assessments, while also teaching them that a problem may have more than one answer. Instead of following specific rules or directions, the child's brain becomes engaged in the discovery of "how" and "why." Even when experimenting or learning how to handle art materials effectively, children are solving challenges and coming up with new ways to handle unexpected outcomes.

Social & Emotional Skills

Art helps children come to terms with themselves and the control they have over their efforts. Through art, they also practice sharing and taking turns, as well as appreciating one another's efforts. Art fosters positive mental health by allowing a child to show individual uniqueness as well as success and accomplishment, all part of a positive self-concept.

Fine Motor Skills

Fine motor skills enable a child do things like delicately turn the page of a book or fill in a sheet of paper with written words. Holding a paintbrush so that it will make the desired marks, snipping paper with scissors into definite shapes, drawing with a crayon, or squeezing glue from a bottle in a controlled manner all help develop a child's fine motor skills and control of materials.

Self-Expression and Creativity

Children express themselves through art on a fundamental level. Sometimes their artwork is the manifestation of that expression, but more often, the physical process of creating is the expression. Picture the toddler who has a new baby sister busily pummeling his fists into Play-Doh; a six-year-old joyfully painting flowers with huge arm movements blending, reds and yellows; a ten year-old drawing a portrait of her grandmother who recently passed away. Creating art allows children to work through feelings and emotions, and referring to a finished piece of artwork helps a child talk about feelings in a new and meaningful way. Art also develops a child's creativity. Rather than being told what to do, answers and directions come from the child. Art is an experience that requires freethinking, experimentation, and analysis -- all part of creativity.

It is important, however, to separate the notion of "talent" from "creativity" -- a child does not have to create a masterpiece to have a meaningful artistic experience. Art is a process, not a product. It's tempting to want our children's art to turn out "cookie-cutter perfect" to prove that they are successful and on track. It's reassuring to know that we can relax! Where art is concerned, it is the process of creating -- exploring, discovering, and experimenting -- that has the greatest value. Through self-expression and creativity, children's skills will develop naturally, and their ability to create will soar.

According to W.Lambert Brittain, author of Creativity, Art, and the Young Child, "The child's personality often shines through loud and clear when he or she draws or paints, for example, the little red-headed boy who drew red-haired boys in stripped T-shirts. No one doubted whom the drawings represented. Drawings by young children are typically egocentric." Brittain says that "Art activities not only reflect a child's inner self: they help form it."
The final form, the finished picture, the beautiful painting is not the goal of art for young children (Schwartz and Douglas, 1967). The goals of art for preschoolers is to:
1.       Express their thinking, knowledge and ideas;
2.       Explore, try out, and create with new and different kinds of media;
3.       Experiment with colors, lines, forms, shapes, textures, and designs;
4.       Express feelings and emotions;
5.       Be creative.

Parents and teachers have many opportunities to help children develop mentally, socially and emotionally. Art promotes creativity, builds self-confidence, teaches task analysis and participate in group work as well as individuals.

Art Promotes Creativity
One of the goals for art education, whether in the home or school, is to make children more creative regardless of where their creativity will be used. Parents know that even siblings are highly individual. No two youngsters express themselves the same way. Creativity brings out the child's personality. Viktor Lowenfeld, in Creative and Mental Growth, says, "To suppress these individual differences, to emphasize the final product, to reward one youngster over another, goes against the basic premises of creative expression."
When parents view their child's artwork, they realize the creative process involved is of great value to the developing child. In other words, the process is more important than the product.

Parents may encourage their children to experiment with art products in the following ways:
·         Avoid coloring-book-type line drawings or workbooks.
·         Have faith in your child's art work and tell them so.
·         Refrain from doing the work yourself, or offering too much help.
·         Accept a child's creative products without placing a value judgment on the item.
·         Make positive comments as to how the child solves a problem in relating to his work.
·         State the confidence you have in the child to make the product unique.

Art Builds Self-Confidence

Parents who encourage the creative skills of pretending, imaginative thinking, fantasizing and inventiveness help their child deal with the world in which they live. And these skills will help in problem solving, getting along with others and understanding their world. When used in art and other areas, these skills build self-confidence--essential for now and for the future.